As previously discussed, managers should encourage whistleblowers and investigate harassment. Furthermore, it is important for managers to establish a formal policy prohibiting harassment. The policy should be communicated to all employees in the company, regardless of management level. The policy should be reviewed and updated on a regular basis. An effective harassment policy should contain these points:
- A broad definition of the type of conduct that constitutes harassment.
- A statement that offenders will be subject to appropriate discipline, up to and including discharge.
- A statement encouraging employees who feel victimized by harassment to report the offensive conduct.
- A statement requiring employees and supervisors to report any offensive conduct that they experience or witness.
- A statement providing assurances that there will be no retaliation against an employee reporting harassment.
- A statement indicating that all reports of harassment will be promptly and thoroughly investigated and prompt remedial action will be taken should the company conclude that harassment has occurred.
The EEOC explains prohibition against harassment. An employer's policy should make clear that it will not tolerate harassment based on sex (with or without sexual conduct), race, color, religion, national origin, age, disability, and protected activity (i.e., opposition to prohibited discrimination or participation in the statutory complaint process). This prohibition should cover harassment by anyone in the workplace - supervisors, co-workers or non-employees. Management should convey the seriousness of the prohibition. One way to do that is for the mandate to "come from the top," i.e., from upper management.
The policy should encourage employees to report harassment before it becomes severe or pervasive. While isolated incidents of harassment generally do not violate federal law, a pattern of such incidents may be unlawful. Therefore, to discharge its duty of preventive care, the employer must make clear to employees that it will stop harassment before it rises to the level of a violation of federal law.
The EEOC explains protection against retaliation. An employer should make clear that it will not tolerate adverse treatment of employees because they report harassment or provide information related to such complaints. An anti-harassment policy and complaint procedure will not be effective without such an assurance.
Management should undertake whatever measures are necessary to ensure that retaliation does not occur. For example, when management investigates a complaint of harassment, the official who interviews the parties and witnesses should remind these individuals about the prohibition against retaliation. Management also should scrutinize employment decisions affecting the complainant and witnesses during and after the investigation to ensure that such decisions are not based on retaliatory motives.
The EEOC explains effective complaint process. An employer's harassment complaint procedure should be designed to encourage victims to come forward. To that end, it should clearly explain the process and ensure that there are no unreasonable obstacles to complaints. A complaint procedure should not be rigid, since that could defeat the goal of preventing and correcting harassment. When an employee complains to management about alleged harassment, the employer is obligated to investigate the allegation regardless of whether it conforms to a particular format or is made in writing.
The EEOC advises employers to designate at least one official outside an employee's chain of command to take complaints of harassment. For example, if the employer has an office of human resources, one or more officials in that office could be authorized to take complaints. Allowing an employee to bypass his or her chain of command provides additional assurance that the complaint will be handled in an impartial manner, since an employee who reports harassment by his or her supervisor may feel that officials within the chain of command will more readily believe the supervisor's version of events.
It also is important for an employer's anti-harassment policy and complaint procedure to contain information about the time frames for filing charges of unlawful harassment with the EEOC or state fair employment practice agencies and to explain that the deadline runs from the last date of unlawful harassment, not from the date that the complaint to the employer is resolved. While a prompt complaint process should make it feasible for an employee to delay deciding whether to file a charge until the complaint to the employer is resolved, he or she is not required to do so.
The EEOC explains confidentiality. An employer should make clear to employees that it will protect the confidentiality of harassment allegations to the extent possible. An employer cannot guarantee complete confidentiality, since it cannot conduct an effective investigation without revealing certain information to the alleged harasser and potential witnesses. However, information about the allegation of harassment should be shared only with those who need to know about it. Records relating to harassment complaints should be kept confidential on the same basis.
A conflict between an employee's desire for confidentiality and the employer's duty to investigate may arise if an employee informs a supervisor about alleged harassment, but asks him or her to keep the matter confidential and take no action. Inaction by the supervisor in such circumstances could lead to employer liability. While it may seem reasonable to let the employee determine whether to pursue a complaint, the employer must discharge its duty to prevent and correct harassment. One mechanism to help avoid such conflicts would be for the employer to set up an informational phone line which employees can use to discuss questions or concerns about harassment on an anonymous basis.
Source: The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, "Enforcement Guidance on Vicarious Employer Liability for Unlawful Harassment by Supervisors," http://www.eeoc.gov/policy/docs/harassment.html.